Moiré physics:

Two-dimensional van der Waals materials can be stacked and rotated. A larger Moiré pattern will emerge as a consequence. Each Moiré cell can be viewed as synthetic atoms with fruitful orbital structures. In these artificial atomic lattices, including Moiré graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide, and phosphorous tri chalcogenide, we can design heterostructure or homobilayer with different orbital and lattice symmetry by controlling material properties or twist angle, as well as many in-situ tuning knobs:

Electrostatic gate-induced carrier density = putting fermions into the lattices

Electrostatic gate displacement field = changing orbitals/lattice symmetries

Light-injected exciton = putting bosons into the lattices

Static magnetic field = putting magnetic flux into the lattices

Below is a movie of Moiré superlattices for fun:

Credit: Graphene Moiré by Jiaqi Cai